Infection and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV2: an immunological perspective

The Coronavirus Pandemic and the Future: Virology, Epidemiology, Translational Toxicology and Therapeutics

Source: © Royal Society of Chemistry

The immune response, influenced by individual characteristics and co-morbidities, can be used to predict the severity of the disease and suggest appropriate treatments and precautions

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The COVID-19 pandemic which started in December 2019, has turned into a disaster and spread across the globe. COVID-19 is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is suspected to be first transmitted through infected bats and pangolins. The virus has evolved numerous ways to defend itself from the immune system, such as inhibiting interferon production, and escaping pattern recognition receptor sensing. The fight between the SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system determines the severity and outcome of COVID-19. During this fight, there are several symptoms that might help in predicting COVID-19 severity, one of the most important being the huge production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to cytokine storm. Other markers include lymphopenia, increased antibody production, and impaired dendritic cells. However, the result of the fight is also influenced by several factors like age, gender, genetic variation, blood group, comorbidities. These factors as well as the symptoms might be used to predict the severity of COVID-19 and suggest medications and precautions as per those. Because it has tremendously affected the world, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutics and vaccines that it can be used to eradicate the virus permanently.