Understanding the adverse effects of COVID-19 on reproductive health
Reproductive health embraces a range of factors and processes, comprising well-being and physical health, and is important in maintaining the quality and quantity of future generations. The current pandemic status of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 outbreak on reproductive health is of a significant public concern within the epidemic. There is only limited scientific evidence available to identify the effects of the disease COVID-19 on reproductive health, principally consisting of reported outcomes of the infection during pregnancy and published cases of COVID-19 occurring during pregnancy. Most women admitted to hospital have been in late second or third trimesters of pregnancy and were from black or other ethnic minority groups. However, questions arise concerning the continuation of pregnancy, the possibility of virus transmission through the placenta, isolation of the newborn after birth, and breastfeeding. The health implications of the spread of COVID-19 disease from the initial site of infection to the female reproductive organs in pregnant women are the main focus of this review and male reproductive effects are also considered.
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