July - 10 years ago; 85 years ago; 100 years ago; 195 years ago; 210 years ago

10 years ago 

The first cloned sheep, Dolly, was born at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, UK. A sheep’s egg-cell nucleus was replaced with a parent udder-cell nucleus. The egg cell reprogrammed the donated DNA in its new nucleus and the resulting embryo was implanted into a surrogate sheep’s womb. 

85 years ago 

Insulin was isolated at Toronto University, Canada by Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best. The protein, a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism, is an effective treatment for diabetes.  

100 years ago 

Allene Jeanes born in Texas, US. She developed intravenous fluids that saved soldiers’ lives in the Korean War. She also invented xanthan gum, a thickener derived from bacteria that decompose cereal grains. She was the first woman to win the US department of agriculture’s distinguished service award. 

195 years ago 

William Robert Grove born in Swansea, UK. He developed two electrochemical cells: one found use in the early US telegraph; the other, a gas voltaic battery, was a forerunner of modern fuel cells. 

210 years ago 

Edward Jenner of Berkeley, England performed the first smallpox inoculation. Jenner had vaccinated eight year old James Phipps with cowpox. Phipps was not harmed by the deadly smallpox.